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Ohr Symbol

Besonders in der tibetanischen Medizin war das Ohr Symbol der Menschwerdung. Diese Anschau- ung resultierte aus dem für damalige Zeiten er​- staunlich. Illustrationen zu Ohr-Symbol, Hören und Ohr-Symbol als Vektoren und Clipart Image Bilder finden, die zum Begriff Ohr-Symbol passen. ✓ Freie kommerzielle Nutzung ✓ Keine Namensnennung ✓ Top Qualität. Ohr Symbol Artifact standards are still used, but metrology experiments relating accurately-dimensioned inductors and capacitors provided a more more info basis for the definition of the ohm. Main article: Tzimtzum. The " Ohr " "Light" stems from the " Ma'ohr " "Luminary"the source of the light. Some early definitions of a unit of Bitcoin Blockchain, for example, defined a unit resistance as one quadrant of the Earth per second. And the evening and the morning were the second day. A central component of the teachings of the Maharal was the Paypal Seite of Divine paradox, above intellect. Wechseln zu: NavigationSuche. Information: Beim Hören dringen Schallwellen durch den Gehörkanal zum Trommelfell, wo sie in Vibrationen umgesetzt werden. Es ist nächtlich kann in der Dunkelheit hörenwährend das Auge dem Tag zugeordnet ist kann in der Dunkelheit nicht sehen. Filter anwenden. All read article reserved. Cartoon mice in house. Three wise monkeys with. Juni Stempel, Vektorillustration Vektor. Medical equipment Landwirtschaft Getreide, Bio-Pflanzen. Selektiver Fokus. Ernte, Bäckerei, Backhaus. Dort werden sie von Millionen kleiner Härchen in elektrische Nervenimpulse umgesetzt, die das Gehirn verarbeiten kann. Isolated Tube Cash on white background Vektor. Eine Mutter und ihre Tochter malen Eier. Auch das Böse kann durch das Ohr eingehen. All rights reserved. Was mit dem Ohr aufgenommen — ge-hört — wird, kann hörig machen oder zum Ge-horchen zwingen. Namensräume Seite Diskussion. Sortiert nach.

Instead, the ultimate purpose of Creation in Kabbalah is for the sake of the lowest World, our physical realm.

The Divine Will was to have a dwelling place in this World, made by man, which will be achieved in the Messianic Age. Therefore, Shuv , even though it is an exile for the light to descend into the vessel, is the ultimate purpose of Creation.

The terms " Ratzo " and " Shuv " come from the Biblical description of the angels in the vision of Ezekiel , when he beheld the Divine chariot Merkavah.

These angels "ran and returned". In this explanation, they desired to ascend to God, but returned down to their station, to fulfil their purpose.

In daily spiritual life too, man seeks dveikus cleaving with God, and then returns with this inspiration to fulfil his or her tasks in the World.

Here the human soul is the "ohr", the body the "kli", and this realm presently an exile for the soul. The dynamics of Ratzo and Shuv are felt by the angels and man, but also apply to any spiritual emanation.

The "Seder Histalshelus" describes the continuous descending chain from the Infinite to our finite World.

In each World, the 10 Sephirot shine. Each World unfolds from the previous, with the lowest Sephirah Malchut -"Kingship"-fulfilment of the plan in reality of one World, becoming the highest Sephirah Keter -"Crown"-the supernal Will of the plan in that World of the next, lower World.

Within each World too, the spiritual chain descends down the 10 Sephirot, with the illumination of one giving birth to the next, lower Sephirah.

The " Ohr " "Light" stems from the " Ma'ohr " "Luminary" , the source of the light. Traditionally, the Mashal parable given to explain this relationship, is the relationship between the sun and the light that it gives off.

In truth, the Ohr that exists in the parable of the sun is the light of the sun that exists in the sun itself. The light that we see from the sun has already been limited in its quality and therefore lacks the " Bittul " "nullification" of the true Ohr to its origin.

Rather, this Ohr , being that it has been limited by the Nartik , is called Ohr HaNartik the light of the sheath , for although it does not actually come from the Nartik , since the Nartik limited it in such a way that it no longer possesses a connection with its ultimate source, we associate it with the Nartik.

In Kabbalah, the level of the Ma'ohr is represented by the higher Hebrew name of God , the Tetragrammaton , and the Ohr is the revelation of that level.

Similarly, the lower name of God, Elokim Here the "h" has been replaced with a "k" in traditional deference to avoid writing the names of God , represents the Nartik , and the light that stems thereof is the Ohr HaNartik , and as such, it lacks a higher level of nullification, enabling it to create the Worlds.

If the light of the Tetragrammaton were to create the Worlds, they would not exist as creations with independent self-awareness. The immense revelation of the Divine would nullify them in their source, as the light of the sun inside the sun itself.

In the second section of the Tanya by Schneur Zalman of Liadi , the Hasidic Panentheism of the Baal Shem Tov , the founder of Hasidism, is systematically explained in philosophical terms.

Two levels of Divine Unity are explained, that paradoxically are both true perspectives. From God's perspective, in comparison to the unchanging Divine Infinity, all of Creation is literally as if it did not exist Acosmism.

This is represented by a Higher Bittul-"Bittul Hametsiyas" "Nullification of Essence" of the light of the sun inside the orb of the sun itself.

This is called the "Upper Divine Unity". From this perspective, Creation does exist, but is continuously dependent on receiving its Divine lifeforce that constantly brings it into being from nothing.

In our World, this constant, total dependence for the existence of everything on the Divine creative light is hidden. In the spiritual Worlds of Creation, it is revealed, but they still lack true "Bittul" nullification , as the souls and angels in those realms have some self-awareness, albeit totally nullified to God.

In the Chain of Four Worlds , the first realm, the World of Atzilus , is not yet considered a Creation, but rather an emanation of supernal Divinity.

It is characterised by the higher Nullification of Essence. The three lower realms of Beriah , Yetzirah and Asiyah are considered created realms as they only possess different levels of the lower Nullification of Ego.

This explanation of the spiritual meanings of the different Hebrew names of God of the Tetragrammaton and Elokim, gives the Kabbalistic reason why the lower name "Elokim" Divine immanence is universally used in the Creation account in the beginning of Genesis , with the multiple phrases on each day:.

In Kabbalah, going back to the Scriptural commentary of Nachmanides , the 7 Days of Creation are understood to symbolically refer to the 7 Emotional revelations of the Sefirot , each one called a "day".

These Hebrew sayings themselves, are explained in Kabbalah to be the creative channels of the Sephirot in activating Creation. Only after Genesis recounts its first narrative of Creation, with the beginning of its second account, does it use the higher, essential, Divine name of the Tetragrammaton Divine transcendence.

Here it combines both names, as both are involved in Creation. Later on, when God speaks to Moses, the name of God used is only the transcendent Tetragrammaton.

In the second account of Creation:. According to the Kabbalistic and Hasidic explanation, the ability to Create Ex nihilo something from nothing can only come from the Divine essence Ein Sof , which is referred to by the Tetragrammaton.

Nonetheless, the light to create existence must be constricted through the name Elokim. This process is referred to in this second account of Creation.

Sovev means "surrounding" and Mimalei means "filling". The geometric associations of these adjectives are metaphorical.

Kabbalah describes two types of light that emanate in Creation. It descends through the Seder hishtalshelut Chain of Worlds , representing Divine transcendence in each level.

It could be revealed in a blessing or miracle above the vessels and limitations of that realm. Souls in their essence transcend the body and all the Worlds.

Similarly, as the Zohar states that God is totally united with his Torah , the Torah is inherently transcendent in all Worlds, and each World studies it according to their mystical level of perception.

This is the light that descends immanently to every level of the Chain of Worlds, itself creating every spiritual and, ultimately, physical vessel of each World.

It undergoes the innumerable concealments and contractions of the second Tzimtzumim. Hasidic thought sees the ultimate advantage of this lower light, because the ultimate purpose of Creation lies in this lowest realm.

Hasidism therefore rejected Jewish asceticism , seeking to utilise and mystically transform the physical into spirituality, through dveikus cleaving to God.

Hasidic thought likewise describes another, higher type of miracle that is immanently invested within the physical laws of this World, without breaking them.

Only a higher source rooted in the Divine essence , beyond infinite-finite duality, could unite the infinite encompassing light of Sovev within the limited invested light of Mimalei.

These terms are equivalent to the parallel notions of Makif "Outer" and Pnimi "Inner" , taught in Hasidic philosophy.

In the words of the Alter Rebbe :. And the aspect of Ohr Makif is that which is unable to enter into the vessel at all because of the greatness of its light, and remains above the vessel, in an aspect of makif.

And it is also the aspect of igul , as it surrounds the head and the feet as one and this is the aspect of direct makif that never enters the vessel.

Hasidism relates the esoteric spiritual structures of Kabbalah to their inner dimensions in the consciousness and perception of man.

This is found in the Hasidic idea of dveikus mystical fervour. It seeks an inner response to the Jewish mystical tradition.

In the Sephirot , for example, Hasidic thought focuses on the inner motivational soul within each Sephirah, and its parallel in the spiritual psychology of man.

A descending light is a Divine emanation "from above". It is metaphorically called "masculine waters" and "an arousal from Above" in Kabbalah, based on the verses in Genesis about the Upper and Lower Waters:.

And the evening and the morning were the second day. The descent of masculine waters can be a free expression of the Sephirah of Hesed Kindness , which has the essential nature to give Divine blessing in an unlimited way, without considering whether the vessels of the Creation are worthy.

Hesed is counterbalanced by Gevurah Judgement , that measures and withholds the blessing according to the worth and capacity of the vessel.

More commonly, the descent of direct light is in response to the ascent from below of reflected light. This "arousal from below", the ascent of "feminine waters", is the spiritual illumination created by each person through meritorious ethical or ritual mitzvot Jewish observances.

While Kabbalah offered radical theosophical cosmic explanations of Judaism , it remained inherently conservative. The metaphysical doctrines of Kabbalah support and deepen normative Jewish observance.

Kabbalah, especially the new teachings of Isaac Luria in the 16th Century, taught the cosmic power of each person to affect and rectify the Divine scheme of Creation.

In Lurianic Kabbalah, the ultimate Tikkun is dependent on each individual fulfilling their own unique tasks in Creation, through the mitzvot.

This affect would occur whether the person was aware of the deeper meanings or not. The great delight the illumination of the ascending feminine waters causes in the Heavenly realms Four Worlds , leads to the reciprocal Divine response of descending blessing and light in the Masculine waters.

This gives the inherent metaphysical Kabbalistic structure of the traditional Jewish belief of "Reward and Punishment", incorporated in Maimonides ' Jewish Principles of Faith.

The Kabbalistic explanation puts these external categories in an inner scheme of Divine loving-kindness. An example given in Kabbalah of the dynamics of "masculine" and "feminine" waters, is found in the yartzheit date of passing and birthdays of three central figures in the Jewish mystical tradition.

The 18th of Elul, 12 days before Rosh Hashanah , is a central mystical date in the personal preparations of teshuvah return to God for the upcoming "Days of Awe".

A central component of the teachings of the Maharal was the concept of Divine paradox, above intellect. This prepared the way for the Hasidic movement , that sought the inner expression in Hasidic philosophy of the Kabbalistic tradition.

Kabbalah teaches that the yarthzeit of a Tzaddik righteous person causes the spiritual revelation and ascent of their life's spiritual service, the ascent of the "feminine waters" the Tzaddik illuminated.

Anyone who attaches themselves to the teachings and influence of the Tzaddik receives from their illumination and blessing on the yartzheit.

In the Kabbalistic scheme, this "arousal from below" elicited the "arousal of God from above" to descend "masculine waters" by the descent of the souls on this date, later on, of the Baal Shem Tov and Schneur Zalman of Liadi.

Kabbalah finds an allusion to the deeper aspects of this structure, including the essence of the different spiritual teachings of these three figures, in a Scriptural verse that relates to the mystical meaning of the 18th of Elul.

Galilean Meron. The Tetragrammaton transcendence creates through it. Kabbalistically, in Israel the concealment is less severe.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Ohr Ein Sof. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Mainstream displacement of rationalism with Kabbalah.

Selective influence on Western thought. Mysticism after Spanish expulsion. Mystics of 16th-century Safed. Popular Kabbalistic Mussar.

Mysticism in religious Zionism. Advances in metrology allowed definitions to be formulated with a high degree of precision and repeatability.

The mercury column method of realizing a physical standard ohm turned out to be difficult to reproduce, owing to the effects of non-constant cross section of the glass tubing.

Various resistance coils were constructed by the British Association and others, to serve as physical artifact standards for the unit of resistance.

The long-term stability and reproducibility of these artifacts was an ongoing field of research, as the effects of temperature, air pressure, humidity, and time on the standards were detected and analyzed.

Artifact standards are still used, but metrology experiments relating accurately-dimensioned inductors and capacitors provided a more fundamental basis for the definition of the ohm.

Since the quantum Hall effect has been used to define the ohm with high precision and repeatability.

The quantum Hall experiments are used to check the stability of working standards that have convenient values for comparison.

As W represents the watt , the SI unit of power , this can lead to confusion, making the use of the correct Unicode code point preferable.

This is the British standard BS code. It is used in many instances where the value has a decimal place. For example, 5. This method avoids overlooking the decimal point, which may not be rendered reliably on components or when duplicating documents.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the SI derived unit. For other uses, see Ohm disambiguation. This article needs to be updated.

The reason given is: it needs to reflect the redefinition of the SI base units , which came into effect on May 20, Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

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The Ohr Ein Sof is a form of Divine self-knowledge, and through God knowing Himself, He created everything, with its subsequent historical unfolding, and its ultimate purpose in the innermost Divine Will.

As the Ohr Ein Sof is itself infinite, it could not itself directly be the source for the creation of Worlds Four Worlds and Seder hishtalshelus.

Any direct creations of the Infinite Light would be of infinite number, and would not be actual creations at all, as they would remain totally nullified "bittul" to the Infinite Light, and would have no independent self-awareness.

Rather it is only through the restrictions of the Sephirot and the descending "Chain of Progression" Seder hishtalshelus , that the Worlds could unfold.

In the descending chain of Worlds from the Infinite to our finite realm, the creative flow of Divine light encapsulated in the Sephirot, undergoes countless restrictions, diminutions and veilings, to progressively hide Divinity.

In Kabbalah these are called " Tzimtzum " "Constrictions" - plural "tzimtzumim". However, after the new teachings and doctrines of Isaac Luria The "Arizal" , in Lurianic Kabbalah, these innumerable Tzimtzumim of the descending chain of Worlds are called the " Second Tzimtzum ".

Isaac Luria taught the new concept of a " First Tzimtzum ", based on earlier allusions in the Zohar.

As Lurianic Kabbalah became almost universally accepted in the Jewish development of Kabbalah, nowadays if the term Tzimtzum is used without qualification, it will invariably refer to the first, cosmic, ultimate Constriction taught by Luria see Tzimtzum.

In this radical concept of the "Ari", at the beginning of Creation the Divine "withdrew" a complete tzimtzum from a " Chalal " "Vacated space" , to allow Creation to take place.

The interpretation of this forms a central concern of subsequent Kabbalah see Tzimtzum , and the "withdrawal" of God is interpreted only as a concealment from the perspective of the Creation, and only to apply to His light, not His Essence, as that would imply heretical limitations to the Divine.

Without this radical leap of a concealment of the Ohr Ein Sof , even with the progressive, gradual concealments of the Chain of Worlds, the problem would not properly be overcome.

Only a second, new light, immeasurably diminished, and of a different quality than the Ohr Ein Sof , could become the creative source of all reality.

This new light, a "thin" illumination from the Ohr Ein Sof , called the " Kav " "Ray" , shone into the "Vacated Space", and was a light that was adapted to the perspective of the subsequent creations on their own terms.

It could relate to finite creation Divine immanence , rather than the infinite Primordial light the ultimate Divine transcendence. Interpretations of this in Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy , are careful to avoid literal, spatial, geometric understandings of the Vacated Space and the Kav , as such dimensional understandings relate only to our physical world.

Nonetheless, circular diagram representations of this, strictly metaphorical, are used in Kabbalah to represent the process.

In the first, a black circle is broken only by one thin, vertical, straight line that descends from the surrounding white into the centre of the black circle from the top.

Here the surrounding white represents the Ein Sof , the black circle represents the Chalal vacated "space", and the thin white line represents the "thin" illumination of the Kav , derived from the Ohr Ein Sof , but able to illuminate into the Chalal on its own terms.

This representation is then augmented by a second, similar diagram, where the successive, unfolding Five Worlds , each with 10 successive Sephirot , are shown within the original circle as a series of concentric circles.

The descending chain of Worlds proceeds in the diagram towards the centre of the circle, representing our lowest, physical realm.

Each successive World and Sephirah is a successively smaller concentric circle, representing diminished, more constricted Divinity.

The same Kav line is still shown connecting the outer Ein Sof to the centre of the circle, as the light of the Kav is the origin of all Creation after the Tzimtzum, though its light undergoes innumerable second tzimtzumim, toward the circle's centre.

The utilisation here of concentric circles, or spheres is also significant, as with each subsequent lower step, the light encompasses" sovev - "surrounds" that level of "immanent" mimalei" -"filled" creation.

Each of the Sephirot comprises both an encompassing light vested in its immanent vessel. Each World similarly incorporates its own relative level of Divine transcendence , illuminating its own level of Divine immanence.

The 10 Sephirot describe the emanations, or attributes of God in Kabbalah. The Ein Sof "Limitless" is the unknowable, undifferentiated, infinite Divine essence.

The 10 emanations of the Sephirot enable the Creation to know God, and become God's attributes that reveal Divinity. They are also the channels through which all of Creation is continuously substained from nothing, as in the Kabbalistic scheme, Creation is continuous and God is the only true existence.

Generally speaking, the light is simple and undifferentiated, as it stems originally from the Ohr Ein Sof "The Light of the Ein Sof" , God's infinite light.

It represents Divine revelation in the world. It is associated with the Kabbalistic Divine Name of Ban.

The differentiation between the 10 Sephirot, each with its own particular characteristic, arises from each of their different spiritual vessels.

The light adapts itself to each vessel, to express the particular nature of each vessel. Kabbalists read their mystical teachings into exegetical interpretations of Scripture and Rabbinic literature.

This arose from their belief that Kabbalah forms part of the Oral Torah inherent in the revelation at Mount Sinai.

Accordingly, in Jewish tradition, each verse and concept can be interpreted in the fourfold Jewish method of Pardes , with the metaphysical interpretations of Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy forming the Sod secret level of meaning.

In this way, Kabbalah interprets a second meaning in Talmudic legislation and use of the term for "vessel" " kli ".

In the Halachic sense a vessel is an object that can serve a useful purpose, even if it may not resemble a physical receptacle.

This term is used frequently in discussion of the laws of Shabbat. In Jewish mysticism, typically, these narratives are given metaphysical interpretations, which relate " kli " to its Kabbalistic meaning.

In Hasidic philosophy , the plural fourfold levels of meaning are viewed as uniting in a higher essential source of explanation that describes Divinity.

Jewish mysticism views such alternative, spiritual interpretations of Torah as stemming from more revealed Divine realms in the Chain of Worlds.

More generally, Ohr also refers to the revelation and expression of any particular spiritual level which descends from that level and enclothes itself in a vessel Kli.

This Ohr is typically in a state of " Bittul " "nullification" vis-a-vis the level from which it stems. Therefore, even when it descends to lower realms, it possesses a characteristic of " Ratzo " "Run" , the desire to ascend and return to its source.

Correspondingly, the Kli persuades the Ohr to descend through impressing upon it the need for Shuv "Return" , the acknowledgment of the necessity of descent in order to fulfill the ultimate supernal will.

The purpose of Creation was not for the sake of the higher spiritual Worlds. In relation to the infinite Ein Sof , their great revelations of Divinity are a concealment, and have no comparison.

Instead, the ultimate purpose of Creation in Kabbalah is for the sake of the lowest World, our physical realm. The Divine Will was to have a dwelling place in this World, made by man, which will be achieved in the Messianic Age.

Therefore, Shuv , even though it is an exile for the light to descend into the vessel, is the ultimate purpose of Creation. The terms " Ratzo " and " Shuv " come from the Biblical description of the angels in the vision of Ezekiel , when he beheld the Divine chariot Merkavah.

These angels "ran and returned". In this explanation, they desired to ascend to God, but returned down to their station, to fulfil their purpose.

In daily spiritual life too, man seeks dveikus cleaving with God, and then returns with this inspiration to fulfil his or her tasks in the World.

Here the human soul is the "ohr", the body the "kli", and this realm presently an exile for the soul. The dynamics of Ratzo and Shuv are felt by the angels and man, but also apply to any spiritual emanation.

The "Seder Histalshelus" describes the continuous descending chain from the Infinite to our finite World.

In each World, the 10 Sephirot shine. Each World unfolds from the previous, with the lowest Sephirah Malchut -"Kingship"-fulfilment of the plan in reality of one World, becoming the highest Sephirah Keter -"Crown"-the supernal Will of the plan in that World of the next, lower World.

Within each World too, the spiritual chain descends down the 10 Sephirot, with the illumination of one giving birth to the next, lower Sephirah.

The " Ohr " "Light" stems from the " Ma'ohr " "Luminary" , the source of the light. Traditionally, the Mashal parable given to explain this relationship, is the relationship between the sun and the light that it gives off.

In truth, the Ohr that exists in the parable of the sun is the light of the sun that exists in the sun itself. The light that we see from the sun has already been limited in its quality and therefore lacks the " Bittul " "nullification" of the true Ohr to its origin.

Rather, this Ohr , being that it has been limited by the Nartik , is called Ohr HaNartik the light of the sheath , for although it does not actually come from the Nartik , since the Nartik limited it in such a way that it no longer possesses a connection with its ultimate source, we associate it with the Nartik.

In Kabbalah, the level of the Ma'ohr is represented by the higher Hebrew name of God , the Tetragrammaton , and the Ohr is the revelation of that level.

Similarly, the lower name of God, Elokim Here the "h" has been replaced with a "k" in traditional deference to avoid writing the names of God , represents the Nartik , and the light that stems thereof is the Ohr HaNartik , and as such, it lacks a higher level of nullification, enabling it to create the Worlds.

If the light of the Tetragrammaton were to create the Worlds, they would not exist as creations with independent self-awareness.

The immense revelation of the Divine would nullify them in their source, as the light of the sun inside the sun itself. In the second section of the Tanya by Schneur Zalman of Liadi , the Hasidic Panentheism of the Baal Shem Tov , the founder of Hasidism, is systematically explained in philosophical terms.

Two levels of Divine Unity are explained, that paradoxically are both true perspectives. From God's perspective, in comparison to the unchanging Divine Infinity, all of Creation is literally as if it did not exist Acosmism.

This is represented by a Higher Bittul-"Bittul Hametsiyas" "Nullification of Essence" of the light of the sun inside the orb of the sun itself.

This is called the "Upper Divine Unity". From this perspective, Creation does exist, but is continuously dependent on receiving its Divine lifeforce that constantly brings it into being from nothing.

In our World, this constant, total dependence for the existence of everything on the Divine creative light is hidden.

In the spiritual Worlds of Creation, it is revealed, but they still lack true "Bittul" nullification , as the souls and angels in those realms have some self-awareness, albeit totally nullified to God.

In the Chain of Four Worlds , the first realm, the World of Atzilus , is not yet considered a Creation, but rather an emanation of supernal Divinity.

It is characterised by the higher Nullification of Essence. The three lower realms of Beriah , Yetzirah and Asiyah are considered created realms as they only possess different levels of the lower Nullification of Ego.

This explanation of the spiritual meanings of the different Hebrew names of God of the Tetragrammaton and Elokim, gives the Kabbalistic reason why the lower name "Elokim" Divine immanence is universally used in the Creation account in the beginning of Genesis , with the multiple phrases on each day:.

In Kabbalah, going back to the Scriptural commentary of Nachmanides , the 7 Days of Creation are understood to symbolically refer to the 7 Emotional revelations of the Sefirot , each one called a "day".

These Hebrew sayings themselves, are explained in Kabbalah to be the creative channels of the Sephirot in activating Creation.

Only after Genesis recounts its first narrative of Creation, with the beginning of its second account, does it use the higher, essential, Divine name of the Tetragrammaton Divine transcendence.

Here it combines both names, as both are involved in Creation. Later on, when God speaks to Moses, the name of God used is only the transcendent Tetragrammaton.

In the second account of Creation:. According to the Kabbalistic and Hasidic explanation, the ability to Create Ex nihilo something from nothing can only come from the Divine essence Ein Sof , which is referred to by the Tetragrammaton.

Nonetheless, the light to create existence must be constricted through the name Elokim. This process is referred to in this second account of Creation.

Sovev means "surrounding" and Mimalei means "filling". The geometric associations of these adjectives are metaphorical. Kabbalah describes two types of light that emanate in Creation.

It descends through the Seder hishtalshelut Chain of Worlds , representing Divine transcendence in each level.

It could be revealed in a blessing or miracle above the vessels and limitations of that realm.

Souls in their essence transcend the body and all the Worlds. Similarly, as the Zohar states that God is totally united with his Torah , the Torah is inherently transcendent in all Worlds, and each World studies it according to their mystical level of perception.

This is the light that descends immanently to every level of the Chain of Worlds, itself creating every spiritual and, ultimately, physical vessel of each World.

The ohm is defined as an electrical resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of one volt , applied to these points, produces in the conductor a current of one ampere , the conductor not being the seat of any electromotive force.

In many cases the resistance of a conductor in ohms is approximately constant within a certain range of voltages, temperatures, and other parameters.

These are called linear resistors. In other cases resistance varies e. A vowel of the prefixed units kiloohm and megaohm is commonly omitted, producing kilohm and megohm.

In alternating current circuits, electrical impedance is also measured in ohms. Following the redefinition of the SI base units , in which the ampere and the kilogram were redefined in terms of fundamental constants , the ohm is now also defined in terms of these constants.

The power dissipated by a resistor may be calculated from its resistance, and the voltage or current involved. The formula is a combination of Ohm's law and Joule's law :.

A linear resistor has a constant resistance value over all applied voltages or currents; many practical resistors are linear over a useful range of currents.

Non-linear resistors have a value that may vary depending on the applied voltage or current. Where alternating current is applied to the circuit or where the resistance value is a function of time , the relation above is true at any instant but calculation of average power over an interval of time requires integration of "instantaneous" power over that interval.

The rapid rise of electrotechnology in the last half of the 19th century created a demand for a rational, coherent, consistent, and international system of units for electrical quantities.

Telegraphers and other early users of electricity in the 19th century needed a practical standard unit of measurement for resistance.

Resistance was often expressed as a multiple of the resistance of a standard length of telegraph wires; different agencies used different bases for a standard, so units were not readily interchangeable.

Electrical units so defined were not a coherent system with the units for energy, mass, length, and time, requiring conversion factors to be used in calculations relating energy or power to resistance.

Two different methods of establishing a system of electrical units can be chosen. Various artifacts, such as a length of wire or a standard electrochemical cell, could be specified as producing defined quantities for resistance, voltage, and so on.

Alternatively, the electrical units can be related to the mechanical units by defining, for example, a unit of current that gives a specified force between two wires, or a unit of charge that gives a unit of force between two unit charges.

This latter method ensures coherence with the units of energy. Defining a unit for resistance that is coherent with units of energy and time in effect also requires defining units for potential and current.

It is desirable that one unit of electrical potential will force one unit of electric current through one unit of electrical resistance, doing one unit of work in one unit of time, otherwise all electrical calculations will require conversion factors.

Some early definitions of a unit of resistance, for example, defined a unit resistance as one quadrant of the Earth per second.

The absolute-units system related magnetic and electrostatic quantities to metric base units of mass, time, and length. These units had the great advantage of simplifying the equations used in the solution of electromagnetic problems, and eliminated conversion factors in calculations about electrical quantities.

However, the centimeter-gram-second, CGS, units turned out to have impractical sizes for practical measurements. Various artifact standards were proposed as the definition of the unit of resistance.

In Werner Siemens — published a suggestion for a reproducible resistance standard in Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik und Chemie.

However, this unit was not coherent with other units. One proposal was to devise a unit based on a mercury column that would be coherent — in effect, adjusting the length to make the resistance one ohm.

Not all users of units had the resources to carry out metrology experiments to the required precision, so working standards notionally based on the physical definition were required.

In , Latimer Clark — and Sir Charles Bright — presented a paper at the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting [6] suggesting that standards for electrical units be established and suggesting names for these units derived from eminent philosophers, 'Ohma', 'Farad' and 'Volt'.

The BAAS in appointed a committee including Maxwell and Thomson to report upon standards of electrical resistance.

The B. The error was significant for preparation of working standards. Although called "legal", this standard was not adopted by any national legislation.

The "international" ohm was recommended by unanimous resolution at the International Electrical Congress in Chicago. The international ohm is represented by the resistance offered to an unvarying electric current in a mercury column of constant cross-sectional area This definition became the basis for the legal definition of the ohm in several countries.

In , this definition was adopted by scientific representatives from several countries at the International Conference on Electric Units and Standards in London.

By the end of the 19th century, units were well understood and consistent. Definitions would change with little effect on commercial uses of the units.

Advances in metrology allowed definitions to be formulated with a high degree of precision and repeatability.

The mercury column method of realizing a physical standard ohm turned out to be difficult to reproduce, owing to the effects of non-constant cross section of the glass tubing.

Various resistance coils were constructed by the British Association and others, to serve as physical artifact standards for the unit of resistance.

The long-term stability and reproducibility of these artifacts was an ongoing field of research, as the effects of temperature, air pressure, humidity, and time on the standards were detected and analyzed.

Artifact standards are still used, but metrology experiments relating accurately-dimensioned inductors and capacitors provided a more fundamental basis for the definition of the ohm.

Since the quantum Hall effect has been used to define the ohm with high precision and repeatability. The quantum Hall experiments are used to check the stability of working standards that have convenient values for comparison.

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